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Volcanoes Around the World

A volcano is a mountain that opens downward to a pool of molten rock below the surface of the earth. When pressure builds up, eruptions occur. Gases and rock shoot up through the opening and spill over or fill the air with lava fragments. Eruptions can cause lateral blasts, lava flows, hot ash flows, mudslides, avalanches, falling ash and floods. Volcano eruptions have been known to knock down entire forests. An erupting volcano can trigger tsunamis, flashfloods, earthquakes, mudflows and rockfalls. More than 80 percent of the earth’s surface is volcanic in origin. The sea floor and some mountains were formed by countless volcanic eruptions. Gaseous emissions from volcano formed the earth’s atmosphere.

The word volcano comes from the little island of Vulcano in the Mediterranean Sea off Sicily. Centuries ago, the people living in this area believed that Vulcano was the chimney of the forge of Vulcan( Lat. Volcanus)–the blacksmith of the Roman gods.

See more volcanoes at SolcomHouse

Volcano WebCams around the World



National Earthquake Center




US Coast Guard riding in a Hurricane

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lot of good lessons and information all about tsunamis

What is a tsunami?

On October 16, 1979 in Nice, France; an undersea landslide generated 2 tsunamis and resulted in several deaths. This “submarine landslide” in the Mediterranean caused a tsunami that struck the French Riviera without warning. The sea retreated 975 feet before rushing back in the form of two 32-foot-high waves along the 37 miles of effected coastline. It was what scientists refer to as a “near-source tsunami.” Sometimes, the only indication of such a tsunami comes when water recedes quickly from the shore. The first wave hits within minutes, allowing no time for any kind of official warning. Near-source tsunamis are accompanied by ground-shaking, which, if severe enough, can cause evacuation routes to become blocked by debris.

Tsunami! is hosted and maintained at the University of Washington by the Department of Earth and Space Sciences. This website is dedicated to providing general information about tsunamis, their causes and history as well as what to do in case of a tsunami.

Surviving a Tsunami – Lessons from Chile, Hawaii, and Japan (If you read nothing else, read this) This is a USGS publication (available online) that details how to survive a tsunami. It is based on personal accounts of the tsunami generated by the 1960 magnitude-9.5 earthquake in Chile.

Pacific Warning Center

West Coast and Alaska warning Center






Over the last 50+ years, railroads have changed a lot. Now they are about to change again.

It is all about a combination of economic factors and climate factors.

Since 1950 , railroads have consolidated. Freight moved from a “box car mentality” to a “unit train,mentality”. Passenger went from a robust business to a “caretaker” arrangement called AMTRAK. This happened as everybody could drive for free on the Interstate Highway System or fly on an airline system where the government subsidized both airlines and airports. In the meantime, railroad express and railroad post offices went “down the tubes”. The old Post Office Department and the Railway Express Agency could not adjust to the new way. UPS and Fex Ex could.

Carbon Calculator
What’s the most environmentally-friendly way to transport goods? The answer is freight rail. The EPA estimates that every ton-mile of freight that moves by rail instead of by highway reduces greenhouse emissions by two-thirds. But what does that really mean? Our easy-to-use carbon calculator will estimate the amount of carbon dioxide that can be prevented from entering our environment just by using freight rail instead of trucks. We’ll even tell you how many seedlings you’d need to plant to have the same effect.


Go To World’s Greatest WebSite

>>> New York Subways

>>>Commuters, Car Culture and The Jenny Plan

>>>Long Island Railroad

>>>Chicago, South Shore & South Bend Railroad

>>>POTUS –  Trains for the President

>>>Milk Trains

>>>The Fabled Rutland Milk

>>>The Muhammad Ali Hyperlink

About Our Great WebSite

>>>>>>About Troop Trains

>>>Metro North Railroad

>>>A Collection of Short Stories about Railroads – Book One

>>>>>>Buffalo Creek Railroad

>>>A Collection of Short Stories about Railroads – Book Two

>>>>>>Troy & Greenbush Railroad

>>>DL&W Railroad, Erie Lackawanna and Lackawanna Cutoff

>>>Circus Trains

>>>>>>Disposition Of Circus Trains

>>>Robert Moses – Against Mass Transit

>>>Troop Trains

>>>>>>Troop Train Movie

>>>Railroader Biographies

>>>>>>George H. Daniels

>>>>>>Plimmon H Dudley

>>>>>>Leonore F. Loree

>>>John W. Barriger: Rail Historian and Railfan

Contact and Great Blogs

Other Interesting WebSites

>>>Ontario & Western Railroad

>>>Connecticut To Philadelphia

>>>Central New York Railroad

>>>Chicago, Rail Capital

>>>The Ride To Choate

>>>Union Pacific Railroad-established by Abraham Lincoln to span the continent

>>>The Warwick Valley and Other Railroads West of the Hudson

>>>Short Line Railroads

>>>>>>Little Falls & Dolgeville

>>>>>>Gary Railway

>>>>>>The Owasco River Railway

>>>>>>Dexter and Northern Railroad Company

>>>Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

>>>Washington, the Nation`s Capital

>>>Royal Tour 1939

>>>The Monon Railroad

>>>Big 4 Bridge: Jeffersonville to Louisville

>>>Chicago & Western Indiana Railroad

>>>The Southern New York Railway

>>>Electric Railroads

>>>Lines West

>>>High Speed Rail

>>>Northeast Corridor

>>>New York State

Some Fascinating WebPages

>>>New York State Railroads, and NY Central Railroad

>>>Delaware & Hudson Railway

>>>Lehigh Valley Railroad

>>>Head End Equipment

>>>Boston & Maine Railroad

 >>>The Four Railroads of Utica

>>>>>>Gulf Curve, April 1940 New York Central Accident

>>>>>>New York Mills Branch On The West Shore

>>>Railroad Mergers

>>>Railroad Bridges and Tunnels

>>>My last ride on the JFK Express subway in April 1990

>>>Chicago Bypass

>>>Van Sweringen Brothers, Nickel Plate and Other Ohio Railroads

>>>New York City Transit Planning

>>>Tahawus: Railroad to a Mine

>>>Chicago Rail Fair

>>>Joint Winter Olympics for Montreal and Lake Placid

>>>Abandoned Railroads

>>>>>>Putnam Division Abandonments

>>>Amtrak’s Secret Business

>>>Alphabet Routes

>>>EMD Model 40

>>>Budd RDC

>>>Benton Harbor – Once A Rail Center

>>>Snow and Railroads

Central New England Railway

>>>>>>The Central New England In Connecticut

>>>>>>New York and New England Railroad

>>>>>>1937 Fan Trip

>>>Central New England Railway In New York State

>>>The Railroads Of Pine Plains

>>>CNE in Hopewell Junction

>>>>>>Hopewell Junction Restoration

>>>The Maybrook Line Across Dutchess County

>>>The Great Bridge At Poughkeepsie

>>>Poughkeepsie Bridge After The Fire

>>>The Rhinebeck & Connecticut Railroad

>>>Central New England Railway Connecticut Connection

>>>Maybrook Yard

>>>>>>Maybrook Yard 1940’s (Maybrook Journal)

>>>Newburgh, Dutchess and Connecticut Railroad (ND&C)

>>>>>>CNE/NDC Dutchess Junction and Matteawan

>>>>>>CNE/NDC Glenham to Hopewell Junction

>>>>>>CNE/NDC Hopewell Junction to Millbrook

>>>>>>CNE/NDC Bangall and Pine Plains

>>>>>>CNE/ND&C between Pine Plains and Millerton

>>>Fishkill Landing

>>>>>>The First Phase Of The NYC Rebuilding At Fishkill Landing 

>>>>>>The Second Phase Of The NYC Rebuilding At Fishkill Landing

>>>>>>The Final Phase Of The NYC Rebuilding At Fishkill Landing

>>>Poughkeepsie & Eastern in the Poughkeepsie Area

>>>Poughkeepsie & Eastern North from Poughkeepsie

>>>One of the railroads that made up the CNE Railway was the Poughkeepsie & Connecticut



Supply Chain Management

>>>Supply Chain Synchronization

Vacation French Riviera



New Haven Railroad

>>>George Alpert, Last New Haven President

>>>Essex Steam Train

>>>Newport and Rhode Island Railroads

>>>Railroads To Cape Cod

>>>Cedar Hill Railroad Yard In New Haven

>>>Housatonic Railroad

>>>Manufacturers Street Railway in New Haven

>>>Train Stations Of Connecticut

>>>Boston and New England Railroads

>>>New Haven RR Signal Stations

>>>Connecticut Railfan

>>>Connecticut Freight Railroads

>>>Shoreline Bridges Of The New Haven Railroad

>>>Old Railroads Of Connecticut

>>>The Trolley In Connecticut

>>>The Shepaug Valley Railroad

>>>What if the Penn Central Merger Did Not Happen

New York Central Railroad

>>>NY Central Shops At Harmon

>>>More On The West Shore


>>>Troy & Schenectady Railroad

>>>Railroader Biographies

>>>Webb’s Wilderness Railroad

>>>Who Owns Grand Central and What Is Track 61

>>>Catskill Mountain Branch

>>>West Side Freight Line

>>>Grand Central Terminal

>>>20th Century Limited

>>>Peoria & Eastern Railway

>>>Chicago River & Indiana Railroad

           The Indiana Harbor Belt

>>>NY Central Harlem Division

>>>Castleton, Selkirk and Hudson Valley

>>>Robert R. Young


>>>Original New York Central Railroad

>>>NY Central Hudson Division

>>>Putnam Division Of The NY Central

>>>Rome, Watertown & Ogdensburg Railroad Company

>>>Dekalb Junction to Ogdensburgh

>>>New Jersey Junction Railroad

>>>What If No Penn Central?

>>>Boston & Albany Railroad

>>>New York Central Lines Magazine

>>>>>>NY Central 1919-1925

>>>>>>NY Central 1925-1931

>>>>>>NY Central Locomotive 999

>>>>>>NY Central Annual Meetings

>>>>>>NY Central Joliet Cutoff

>>>>>>NY Central Pullman Lettering

>>>>>>NY Central RW&O Chronicals

>>>>>>NY Central GCT #1 Wrecker

>>>>>>NY Central 1921 Transportaton World

>>>>>>NY Central Health & Pleasure

>>>>>>NY Central Ken Knapp

>>>POTUS: Lincoln and Trains

>>>The New York Central Railroad in 1950

>>>More About The New York Central Railroad

>>>New York Central Song